Depending on the volume, mass, shape, composition and condition of the artifacts, hundreds if not thousands of gallons of NaOH solution may be required to optimize and maintain the chloride concentration gradient between the artifact and the treatment solution. It is believed that where an ion-exchange resin is employed, the recirculating solution ensures a constant pH and a maximum chloride release, resulting in a decrease in overall treatment times. The recycle-ability introduced by the utilization of resin would allow for an unprecedented development opportunity for stabilization treatments. A single volume of solution would be continuously recirculated through the resin bed, allowing for considerable reduction in the amount of treatment solution produced and subsequently disposed of, therefor drastically reducing labor, cost and health and safety issues. These benefits would also be applicable to the subcritical treatment resulting in significant up-scaling of the technique. Reductions in volume of solution needed would possibly allow larger artifacts, such as cannon to be treated. Due to their regeneration capability (life-cycle of 5-10 years), ion-exchange systems provide an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and sustainable treatment option for the desalination of metallic cultural heritage.